Chitosan derived formulations and EmzaloidTM technology for mucosal vaccination against diphtheria : nasal efficacy in mice
Truter, Erika Mare
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Previous studies have demonstrated that chitosan and its derivative, N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) are effective and safe absorption enhancers to improve mucosal delivery of macromolecular drugs including vaccines. Furthermore, chitosan and TMC can easily form microparticles and nanoparticles, which have the ability to encapsulate large amounts of antigens. Emzaloid™ technology has proven in the past to be an effective delivery system for numerous drugs. Emzaloids can entrap, transport and deliver large amounts of drugs including vaccines. In this study, the ability of chitosan microparticles and nanoparticles, TMC microparticles as well as micrometer and nanometer range Emzaloids to enhance both the systemic and mucosal (local) immune response against diphtheria toxoid (DT) after nasal administration in mice was investigated. The above mentioned formulations were prepared and characterised according to size and morphology. DT was then associated to the chitosan microparticles and nanoparticles as well as TMC microparticles to determine the antigen loading and release. It was found that the loading efficacy of the formulations was 88.9 %, 27.74 % and 63.1 % respectively, and the loading capacity of the formulations was 25.7 %, 8.03 % and 18.3 %. DT loaded and unloaded (empty) chitosan microparticles and nanoparticles, TMC microparticles, micrometer and nanometer range Emzaloids as well as DT in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were administered nasally to mice. Mice were also vaccinated subcutaneous with DT associated to alum as a positive control. All mice were vaccinated on three consecutive days in week 1 and boosted in week 3. Sera was analysed for anti- DT IgG and nasal lavages were analysed for anti-DT IgA using an enzyme linked imrnunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the study conducted to determine the systemic (IgG) and local (IgA) immune responses it was seen that DT associated to all the experimental formulations produced a systemic immune response. The said formulations produced a significantly higher systemic immune response when compared to the formulation of DT in PBS. Furthermore, the mice vaccinated with DT associated to the TMC formulations showed a much higher systemic immune response than the mice that were vaccinated subcutaneously with DT associated to alum, whereas the other formulations produced systemic immune responses that were comparable to that of DT associated to alum. It was also found that DT associated to the experimental formulations produced a local immune response, however only DT associated to TMC microparticles produced a consistent local immune response. It can be concluded from the in vivo experiments that the TMC formulations, moreover, the TMC microparticles is the most effective and promising formulation for the nasal delivery of vaccines.
- ETD@PUK