'n Model vir die prosessering van demografie as determinant van die onderwysstelsel
Maarman, Rouaan Francois Alexander
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This research is aimed at the formulation of a model for the processing of demography as a determinant of the education system. The inadequate understanding of demography in the education system causes flawed management of the target group by educational providers worldwide. Enrolment rates, school life expectancy, put-through rates and school completion rates (especially in developing countries) are not up to standard in most countries. Although developed regions manage most of these imperatives satisfactory, other education system aspects are experienced as challenges, for example inclusivety and equality. To steer the formulation of the model for the processing, a literature study was undertaken to elucidate demography in the context of the education system. The concept demography is investigated from a theoretical perspective. Research about the worldwide demographic tendencies was undertaken and the different aspects concerning demographic challenges were exposed. This was followed by a study concerning demographic challenges with respect to the four components of the education system. The literature clearly showed that the way in which demographic imperatives influence the four components, determines the criteria according to which a particular education system might measure it's success. Within this context demography as determinant of the education system is explained and an awareness is cultivated about how demographic demands of the target group can be approached by the education provider. A local investigation was undertaken to understand demographic demands in regional context. The North-West Province was used as a case study to present a local perspective of demographic demands on the education system. As the North-West Province is one of the nine provinces of South Africa, it was also necessary to indicate the wider South African demographic trends. Although the North-West Province does experience certain demographic challenges similar to those of the South African set-up as a whole, it also possesses has a number of unique aspects, for instance its geography and economy, which have direct demographic influence on the education system. The general population data and the education data of the province was scrutinised in the context of the educational region to emphasis the implications for the Department of Education. Typical examples of demographic imperatives (especially migration between regions of the province and migration to and from the province) which operate in the North-West Province can be attributed to the farming and mining activities prevalent in the province. The empirical investigation of the research was aimed at the experiences of schools in the North-West Province concerning demographic challenges. The investigation is focused on the leadership of schools and the management of the school leaders regarding demography. The demographic impact in the school- and regional context is also investigated in detail. Administrative problems experienced by principals as a result of inefficient planning are investigated and a policy analysis is done from a management perspective. The responses regarding the above-mentioned aspects show the challenges facing the Department of Education because of the demographic impact. A model is formulated with general demographic guidelines, relevant demographic imperatives and a structural education system approach. Suggestions are made about the adequate application of the model. This contribution to demographic processing is intended to broaden the understanding of educational providers regarding demography as a determinant of the education system and to address the gaps in educational provision and management.
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