Nasal drug delivery of calcitonin with pheroid technology / Jeanéne Celesté Kotzé
Kotzé, Jeanéne Celesté
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Advances in biotechnology and recombinant technologies have lead to the production of several classes of new drugs such as peptide and protein drugs. These compounds are mostly indicated for chronic use but their inherent characteristics such as size, polarity and stability prevent them from incorporation in novel dosage forms. The bioavailability of nearly all peptide drugs is very low due to poor absorption from the administration site. Several challenges confront the pharmaceutical scientist in developing effective and innovative dosage forms for these classes of drugs. A lot of attention has been given to the nasal route of drug administration for delivery of peptide drugs. The availability of several promising classes of absorption enhancers and new drug delivery technologies has also prompt scientists to develop new delivery systems for nasal administration of peptide drugs. It has been shown in recent years that N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC), a quaternary derivative of chitosan, is effective in enhancing the absorption of several peptide drugs, both in the peroral route and in the nasal route of drug administration. Early indications are that new drug delivery technologies such as Pheroid technology will also be able to enhance peptide drug absorption in the nasal route. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the absorption enhancing abilities of TMC and Pheroid technology in the nasal delivery of calcitonin, a peptide hormone with low bioavailability. Pheroid vesicles and Pheroid microsponges were prepared and characterized for their morphology and size distribution. Calcitonin was entrapped into these vesicles and microsponges and TMC and TMO solutions (0.5 % w/v), containing calcitonin, was also prepared. These formulations were administered nasally to rats in a volume of 100 μl/kg body-weight to obtain a final concentration of 10 IU/kg body-weight of calcitonin. Plasma calcitonin and calcium levels were determined over a period of 3 hours. The results of this study clearly indicated that both Pheroid formulations and the TMC formulation increase the nasal absorption of calcitonin with a resulting decrease in plasma calcium levels, indicating an increased absorption of calcitonin. The highest increase in calcitonin absorption was obtained with the TMC formulation and this was explained by the difference in the mechanism of action in enhancing peptide absorption between TMC and Pheroid technology. It was concluded that Pheroid technology is also a potent system to enhance peptide drug delivery and that the exact mechanism of action should be investigated further.
- ETD@PUK