|dc.description.abstract||Ozonation, or advanced oxidation processes (utilising ozone decomposition products as oxidants) are widely used in industrial waste water and drinking water treatment plants. In these applications the use of ozone is based on ozone and its decomposition by-products being strong oxidants. A case study revealed that several waterworks in South Africa successfully utilise ozone as a pre-oxidant for the treatment of raw waters.
South Africa holds more than three quarters of the world’s viable chromium ore (chromite) reserves. Subsequently the Cr-related industry-within is considerable in size and a major producer of large volumes of waste materials. Chromium also occurs commonly in other industrial waste materials (e.g. fly ash and clinkers originating from coal combustion) and is a natural occurring element in natural sediments, since chromium is the 21st most abundant element in the earth’s crust with an average concentration of approximately 100 ppm. Considering the abundance of natural and anthropogenic Cr-containing materials in South Africa the possibility exists that some of these materials might be suspended in raw water entering water treatment facilities.
In this dissertation, the possible oxidation of non-Cr(VI) Cr-containing materials suspended in water during ozonation, is presented within the context of water treatment applications (Chapter 4). The results indicate that in situ formation of hazardous Cr(VI) is possible during aqueous ozonation. pH had a significant influence, since the decomposition products of aqueous O3, i.e. hydroxyl radicals that form at higher pH levels, were found to be predominantly responsible for Cr(VI) formation. Increased ozonation contact time, water temperature and solid loading also resulted in elevated Cr(VI) concentrations being formed. Occasionally these values exceeded the drinking water standard 50 ppb Cr(VI). The results therefore indicate the importance of removing suspended particulates from water prior to ozonation. Additionally, pH-control could be used to mitigate the possible formation of Cr(VI) during ozonation. In Chapter 5, exploratory work is presented on the possibility of utilising Cr(VI) formation via ozonation as a means of recovering chromium from Cr-containing waste materials. Such a study is of particular interest within the local context, considering the large volumes of waste produced by the Cr-related industry in South Africa. This exploratory work is based on the fact that unlike Cr(0) and Cr(III), most Cr(VI) compounds are relatively soluble in water. Cr(VI) is a carcinogen if inhaled, however the probability of negative health effects are substantially reduced if it occurs in solution. Thus a hydrometallurgical route of recovering Cr-units via Cr(VI) generation represents the safest route with regard to Cr(VI) exposure. Such a hydrometallurgical route could also addresses the limitations of the physical separation methods currently applied, which fails to recover fine Cr-containing solids. The degree of Cr2O3-liberation achieved in this exploratory work was relatively low. However, the Cr2O3-liberation achieved for the ferrochromium slag (15%) indicated some promise, considering the limitations of this exploratory work. Several steps can be considered in future studies, which would in all likelihood improve the Cr2O3-liberation further.||en_US