Die voornaamwoord in Tswana : die identifikasie en klassifikasie
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It was revealed by research that in several grammatical studies of African languages, the word class "pronoun" as a separate word category is acknowledged. The grammarians differ mutually in terms of the items that are classified as pronouns. The underlying cause of this difference in interpretation lies in the existence of three word distributing systems in the study of African languages, namely conjunctivitism, semi-conjunctivitism and disjunctivitism. In chapter 1 it is constituted that the aim of the study to reassess the "items" that are regarded as pronouns in the grammars, in terms of their status as parts of speech, if not. The study made it necessary that the word distributing systems and word classification criteria as well as the word identification criteria as well as the word identification criteria be subjected to a close scrutiny. In this chapter it was constituted that a number of problems ensue from the differences that exist regarding the theoretical approach regarding the two problem areas of the word in Tswana, namely word identification and word classification. The problems that were addressed in the study were how the word distributing systems are, what the differences and similarities between word identification and classification criteria are and to gain finality about which word distributing system is the most acceptable, according to linguistic principles. In chapter 2, attention is paid to the different items that are regarded as pronouns. It was revealed that grammatici such as Van Eeden (1941). Sandilands (1953), Doke (1957), Van Wyk (1961), Ziervogel (1969), Cole (1 975) and Louwrens (1991 ) all regard the absolute, demonstrative and quantitative pronoun as a word class. Grammatici such as Doke (1957), Cole (1975), Louwrens and Poulos (1994) mention the so-called qualificative pronouns. The adjective, enumerative, possessive and the relative are classified as qualificative pronouns. Cole (1975) regards the quantitative as a qualificative pronoun as well. Grammatici such as Van Wyk (1961) and Krüger (1989) don't agree with this point of view, because some of the mentioned items are not words, but word groups. In chapter 3, attention is paid to a theoretical framework for the identification and classification of the different pronouns as they exist in the different African languages. The three word distributing systems as they appear in the African languages, were investigated. Unanimity regarding the problem of word classes or parts of speech could not be reached. The differences that exist regarding word identification and word classification, originated from the word distributing systems. In this chapter, different grammatical phenomenon or items were identified, about which there are differences in the different word distributing systems. Differences regarding the verb, function words (particles or links), copulative verbs, the possessive and qualificative links, as well as the locative demonstratives, nouns and pronouns exist. Different tests that apply to word identification, were investigated. The classification principles or criteria were also researched. In chapter 4, the word class status of the pronouns is identified. The different word distributing systems differ mutually regarding the type of status awarded to the different items. The items can have the status of either a morpheme, base, word or word group. the different pronouns were treated according to their status (previous findings and new status), their generic status, as well as their morphological and syntactical structure. It was established that according to the different word distributing systems, it can be determined whether pronouns occupy a set or varying status. It was determined that the absolute, demonstrative and quantitative pronouns regarding the disjunctive and semi-conjunctive word distributing systems occupy the set status of a word. These three pronouns occupy the status of a word or base or morpheme, according to the conjunctive word distributing system. The adjective-relative and verb-relative occupy the status of word groups, according to the disjunctive and semi-conjunctive word distributing systems. These constructions occupy the status of words as well as bases according to the conjunctive word distributing system. The possessive pronoun occupies the status of a word according to the disjunctive and semi-conjunctive word distributing systems. It has the status of a base/morpheme in the conjunctive word distributing system. According to the disjunctive system, the enumerative pronoun - sele has the status of a word and the status of a base according to the semi-conjunctive and conjunctive word distributing system. the enumerative pronouns -fe? and -pe has the status of bases according to the disjunctive word distributing system. The conjunctive and semi-conjunctive word distributing systems share this view. the enumerative pronouns -sele and -pe are re-assessed as subcategory of the quantitative pronoun, while -fe? is assessed as interrogative pronoun.
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