Prestasieskale in enkele aktiwiteite van die liggaamlike opvoeding vir dogters van 11 tot 17 jaar
Van Zijl, Hendrik Christoffel
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In Physical Education the feminial individual is looked upon as the weaker sex which has to be protected against an excess of physical activity and achievements. Investigation has proved that, although there are certain anatomic and physiological differences between the sexes these differences are not as radical as was formerly maintained. Furthermore it has been found that in the programmes for physical education for girls one can with safety concentrate on the development of the fundamental aspects, e.g. strength, dynamity, velocity, endurance and co-ordination, and thereby procure physical achievements of a high standard. An investigation in South Africa was found to be necessary to ascertain the possibilities of achievement of girls in a diversity of physical activities because differences in achievement vary from country to country. In this investigation scales of achievement in six activities for white girls have been compiled. As far as these girls are concerned numerous activities must still be tested. The chronological grouping of girls seems to be well grounded on the strength of the findings of Delaney, Adams, Cozens, Cubberley, Neilson, Mitchell and Espenschade. (Chapter 4) Hence the application of these scales is rather simplified. The scales of achievements are compiled with the view of 1) supplying a gauge according to which the capability and improvement of the girls can be ascertained objectively; 2) to assess the physical possibilities of girls and thereby to eliminate weaknesses and to provide a stimulus for the improvement thereof; 3) to obtain a picture of the physical efficiency and achievement possibilities of white school girls in Transvaal; 4) to contribute to a better method of teaching the subject of physical education. For the compilation of the scale of achievements 4,645 tests by 797 school girls in the province of Transvaal were taken. The procedure followed in taking these tests was standardised beforehand, and most activities are in agreement with the procedure followed at athletic meetings. Implementing the scales is thus very simple and intelligible. In choosing the activities the fundamental aspects borne in mind are strength, dynamity, velocity, endurance and co-ordination. The tests are also chosen such that their penultimate aim is of a high practise value and usefulness as well as versatile development. B. Conclusions: a) The scales provide for objective and the reliable determining of the physical capabilities of 11 to 17 year old Transvaal school girls in the six activities, i.e. 100 yards sprint, standing broad jump, throwing the hockey ball, putting the shot, the side step test and the basket-ball go throw. The compiled results are obtained from a representative group of school-going girls in the Transvaal. The scales cannot thus be accepted as national standards unless the possibilities of the differences of achievements of corresponding groups in other provinces have been ascertained. b) The results of the investigation throw light on the achievement capabilities of the Transvaal school girl. (i) It would seem as if the Transvaal white school girl surpasses all other racial groups, i.e. Bantu, Chinese, Coloured and Indian girls between 11 and 17 years of age as far as speed is concerned. The white girl is capable of a much higher achievement capability which could be due to better teaching facilities and abilities for physical training. (ii) In the standing broad jump the South African girl beats the American girl in all age groups. (iii) A comparison between the South African boy and girl indicates that the boy in the age group from 12 - 17 years beats the opposite sex in all activities with the exception of the girl in the thirteen year old age group in which the girl is superior by 1.1 seconds taken on an average basis. c. The differences of the average achievement capabilities of the different activities and the significance thereof justify the conclusion that girls from 11 to 13 years of age should not be grouped in the activities of this investigation with the exception of the side step-test for 11 and 12 year olds who should enjoy this activity together as a single group. Primarily it seems feasible to classify 15 to 17 year old girls as a homogeneous group, but when the significance of the differences is being assessed it becomes obvious that this grouping becomes unjustified (p 66 - 67) C. Further Investigations: This investigation is limited to the school-going girl of the Transvaal. The following are revealed: 1. Before these scales can be accepted as national standards their validity must be verified by means of a comparison with similar data obtained from the other provinces of our country. 2. The question of the achievement capabilities of girls of other races in South-Africa, especially the Bantu girl, should be investigated, 3. Achievement scales for white girls under 11 years of age and of those of women students would be a welcome appendix. 4. The scales in this investigations provide data for six Physical Training activities only. Hence it is essential to extend this test programme in order to supply objective standards to ascertain the value of other activities of Physical Education. 5. Factors such as social and economic conditions could influence the achievement capabilities of the individual. Such an investigation could reveal important facts. As far as scientific investigation in connection with the female individual is concerned, a wide field for investigation is still left open.
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