Die effek van 'n leeshulpprogram op Kleurling–hoërskoolleerlinge : 'n vergelykende psigologiese ondersoek
Voges, Petrus Daniël Francois
MetadataShow full item record
1. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY - The aim of this study is a psychological and scholastic investigation of the effect of a supplementary reading programme on Coloured high school pupils. In order to do this, zero hypotheses and alternative hypotheses were drawn up which would enable one to compare an experimental group (which had done the supplementary reading course) with a control group (which had not done such a course). In short the zero hypotheses amount to saying that there are no differences in reading ability, school performance, study habits and study attitudes, aptitude and personality between Coloured high school pupils •who did a reading development course and those who did not do such a course. The alternative hypotheses endeavour to prove the opposite, namely that such differences do exist. 2. LITERATURE SURVEY - As a starting point for this investigation, a number of relevant concepts were defined. Some of these concepts are "read", "reading difficulties”, "Coloured”, “Urban and -rural areas”. The importance of reading was demonstrated by pointing out that a good reading ability is essential for the forming of a healthy personality, social development, recreation, extending knowledge, etcetera. The complexity of the reading process came to the fore when the explanation of what the reading process entails, was discussed as it is described by various researchers. The different theoretical models discussed, are the optical-mechanical model, psychometric models, psychological models, the communication model and linguistic models. The extent of reading difficulties was outlined by means of results obtained by researchers, local and foreign. In this respect reference was also made to reading differences pertaining to sex and reading differences between rural and urban areas. A detailed account was given of the main causes of reading difficulties related to scholastic and socioeconomic factors, and in particular how these factors manifest themselves among the Coloured community. As far as the scholastic determinants are concerned, attention was given to the poor pre-school environment of the Coloured child, insufficient number of nursery schools, compulsory education and school leaving at an early age, inadequate differentiation, lack of accommodation and a shortage of suitably qualified staff. Concerning the socio-economic determinants the following were dealt with: class differences, life style of the lower class, the family milieu, cultural values and norms, residential area and housing, recreational activities, linguistic abilities and physical factors. The diagnosis of reading difficulties was discussed in short. In this survey particular attention was paid to the different levels of diagnosis and methods of diagnosing. Some difficulties in diagnosing reading problems among Coloureds were also pointed out. The last aspect from the literature which was dealt with was the remediation of reading problems. Emphasis was given to the more traditional methods of supplementary reading teaching, for instance the basic reading book method, the alphabet method, the neurological and the perceptual kinaesthetic method. Lifting the causes of reading problems which emanate from this study would allow remediation to be used to the full among the Coloured people. 3. METHOD OF RESEARCH - 3.1 Sample: In order to determine the effect of the supplementary reading programme, a comparative study •was made between an experimental group (which did a reading course) and a control group (which did not do such a course). The sample consisted of a total experimental group of 31 people (Std. 8 and Std. 9 pupils) of whom 15 were Std. 8 and 16 Std. 9 pupils while on the other hand the total contra l group of 26 people (Std. 8 and Std. 9 pupils) consisted of 14 Std. 8 and 12 Std. 9 pupils. 3.2 Measuring Instruments: The measuring instruments used to investigate the different fields were the following: - Reading ability, The ophtalmograph - Scholastic achievement, Real school marks - Study habits, Questionnaire on study habits and attitudes - Aptitude, Senior aptidude test - Personality, The High School personality Questionnaire and IPAT Anxiety scale. The above mentioned measuring instruments were discussed in detail under the headings: objective, composition, validity, reliability and reason for using them in this research. 3.3 Research procedures: Global as well as reductionistic comparisons were used in this study. A global comparison is drawn between the total experimental group and the total control group. The reductionistic investigation entails a comparison between the Std. 8 experimental and control groups as well as a comparison between the Std. 9 experimental and control groups. Apart from the above mentioned comparisons the Std. 8 and Std. 9 control groups, as well as the Std. 9 and Std. 9 experimental groups were also compared. A description was given of the supplementary reading programme which consisted of ten one hour sessions, as, well as a full description of the apparatus used, namely the tachistoscope and the contro11ed reader. Statistical calculations were done by the Statistical Consultation Service of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. Short descriptions only of the techniques used are given in the study. 4. RESEARCH RESULTS - The most important results of this research can be summarised as follows: * READING ABILITY - This study brings to light that the reading course brought a significant improvement in reading achievement in the total experimental group. Seen reductionistically the Std. 8 experimental group also showed significant improvement when compared with the Std. 8 control group. However, no significant differences were found between the Std. 9 experimental and control groups. In the case of the total and the Std. 8 experimental group the alternative hypothesis was accepted while the zero hypothesis was maintained in the case of the Std. 9 groups. * SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT - The scholastic achievement of the total experimental group showed a significant improvement when compared with the total control group. Seen reductionistically the Std. 8 experimental group also achieved significantly higher marks at school than the Std. 8 control group. This te1dency was not repeated in the Std. 9 experimental group, where no significant differences were found. In the case of the total and the Std. 8 investigations the alternative hypothesis was accepted, while the zero hypothesis had to be maintained for the Std. 9 group comparison. * STUDY HABITS AND ATTITUDES - Seen globally the total experimental group exhibited better study habits and attitudes than the total control group. When judged reductionistically neither the Std. 8 not the Std. 9 group comparisons brought to light any significant differences. Thus the zero hypothesis was applicable to the reductionistic investigations, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted in the case of the tota1 experimental group. * APTITUDE - The zero hypothesis had to be accepted right through, in the global as well as the reductionistical investigation, in other words, no significant differences were found between the different groups as far as aptitude is concerned. An interesting tendency was discovered, however, from the calculated IQ's of the SAT, namely that there is a connection between a supplementary reading course and a rise in intelligence. * PERSONALITY - The total evaluation of personality traits of the Coloured high school pupils by means of the HSPQ and IPAT Anxiety scale shows that the reading course, judged globally or reductionistically, did not bring about significant differences between the experimental and control groups. Thus the zero hypothesis was accepted throughout. 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION - In researching the effect of a supplementary reading programme on Coloured high school pupils it was found that there was a definite beneficial influence on reading ability and scholastic achievement. It does seem however, as if aptitude and personality development are established aspects which will not be changed by a reading development course. If the reading course should have a lasting effect on the aspects which it improves, it is possible that in the .long run personality changes and even improvement in aptitude may take place. As far as study habits and attitudes are concerned, positive results were obtained, but it had been expected to have been even better. The results of this study correlate well with those of other researchers on reading improvement by means of a supplementary reading course in which apparatus is used. It should not be considered however as the only method of reading aid, since many other researchers obtain positive results with other methods. On account of the distinctiveness of this study its results cannot be generalised by the norms formed by the results of other researchers. By reason of the population and the size of the sample of this study, the results of this investigation can only be made applicable to the Std. 8 and Std. 9 pupils of the Promosa High School in Potchefstroom. As a result of the new political dispensation it is to be expected that there will be an improvement in the factors which cause reading difficulties among the Coloured population, but it is .sure to be a long drawn out process.
- Humanities