An assessment of the invariance of work–related well–being in selected South African sectors
The current work environment demands a lot from employees. Organisations implement strategies to reduce cost and increase productivity, often ignoring the well-being and needs of employees. Factors such as virtual offices are becoming a reality as cell phones, laptops, tablets and other technology make availability a reality 24 hours a day. This leads to employees being confronted with work wherever and whenever it is required. These factors can lead to distress or eustress or both. Some employees experience symptoms of burnout due to all these demands placed on them, yet others experience eustress. Work well-being is crucial to ensure that employees are engaged and committed to their job and contribute to the success of the organisation they are employed with. In the model of work-related well-being of Nelson and Simmons (2003), which will be discussed in this research, burnout is regarded as distress, while work engagement is regarded as eustress. The objective of this study is to determine whether a relationship exists between the dimensions of work-related well-being within selected sectors in South Africa – whether it leads to either burnout or work engagement and whether it is similar in different sectors. Various models can be used to explain these effects but for the purposes of this study the following models were consulted, namely the Comprehensive Model of Burnout and Engagement (COBE), the Effort-Recovery (E-R) Model and the Job Demand / Resources (JD-R) model. The participants in this study are educators and administrative personnel from tertiary education institutions (n = 1324), secondary schools (n = 1177), employees from the insurance industry (n = 613), and correctional services (n = 892). The measurement vii instruments used are the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Job Demands-Resources Scale and the Organisational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET). The results indicate that there is a relationship between the dimensions of work-related well-being in different sectors and that it has great predictive value in different sectors.