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Acculturation and language orientations of Turkish immigrants in Australia, France, Germany and the Netherlands
Van de Vijver, Fons J.R.
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The authors examined acculturation and language orientations among Turkish immigrants in Australia (n = 283), France (n = 266), Germany (n = 265), and the Netherlands (n = 271). They expected that the countries with the least pluralistic climate (France and Germany) would show the lowest level of sociocultural adjustment and the highest level of ethnic orientation and language use; the opposite was expected in Australia, as the country with the most pluralistic climate; and the Netherlands would have an intermediate position. The predictions were largely borne out. The language orientation measures yielded a (symbolic) language value factor and a (behavioral) language preference factor. In all countries Turkish identity was a positive predictor and mainstream identity a negative predictor of both the language value and preference factor. Mainstream and Turkish identity showed stronger negative correlations in the less pluralistic countries. It is concluded that immigrants showed the least maintenance and the most adjustment in Australia, which is the country with the least pressure to assimilate.