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Die effek van vertelling op die herroeping en retensie van inhoud in 'n dokumentêre video
Henriët, Johanna Carla
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This study represents an investigation into the effect of multiple production techniques on the recall and retention of information of university students. The purpose of the study was to determine how the ‘Voice of God’ narration affects recall and retention of information compared to an on-camera interview. In documentary video, conveying information is one of the key goals of the director. In most cases, the conveyance of information in itself is insufficient. The director seeks the emotional participation of the audience so that they can become aware of a specific issue. In this mediated environment, the producer’s attempts at reaching the audience are interwoven with the producer’s capability to facilitate the audience’s recall of information. By using the ‘Voice of God’ narration, a director can enhance the narrative and make the information more understandable. Theory suggests that the use of multiple production techniques can either have a negative or positive impact on the processing of information. This statement is based on different experiments that were done by researchers on how various production techniques affect the information processing of an individual. The theoretical basis of the study is rooted in the metatheory, cybernetics. Within cybernetics, the narrative theory explains the structure of the story and how it is conveyed to an audience. Voice-over in documentary video is situated in the narrative theory because the structure of the information the voice-over gives to an audience is of utmost importance. From the theoretical basis, this study uses Lang’s (2000) limited capacity model of mediated message processing to investigate the effect of narration (voice-over) as embedded in documentary video. Specifically, it addresses the mediator’s (in documentary video, the producer’s) goal of maximum information recall by the receiver of the message. The application of Lang’s model is outlined in an empirical design that explores recall of message content and the retention of information in two ways; the recall and retention of information presented through an on-camera interview and the recall and retention of information presented by a narrator whilst images are shown that do not include an image of the narrator him/herself (Voice of God narration). Two experiments were designed for the purpose of this study in which 37 students from the North-West University’s Potchefstroom campus participated. The students were divided into two groups; group one watched the video where the information is presented by an on-camera-interview, and group two watched the video where the information is presented by a ‘Voice of God’ narrator. Two questionnaires were given to the groups at two different times. The results obtained suggest that there is no significant difference in the production techniques and the recall and retention of information. Based on the results, certain recommendations are made for future research, which include modifying the message and research design.
- Humanities