Job characteristics, work-nonwork interference and coping strategies among ministers of religion
Van der Westhuizen, Anna Sophia
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Ministers have a very unique occupation with designated job demands and incongruous resources at their disposal. Over the past few years numerous studies have been undertaken different occupations’ regarding job demands and job resources. In contrast, limited studies were done among ministers of religion, particularly in the context of the three Reformed sister churches in South Africa. This is the case even though these ministers play such a key role in the current social and religious sphere. Results from previous studies have shown that job demands and the lack of resources have a major impact on the experience of work-nonwork interference among individuals (Koekemoer & Mostert, 2006; Mostert, 2009, Mostert & Oosthuizen, 2006; Tshabalala, 2007; Van Aarde & Mostert, 2008).This trend, however, has not been researched amongst ministers before – particularly how ministers cope with this interference. The overall objective of the present study was to investigate job demands and job resources as significant predictors of work-nonwork interference for ministers of the three sister churches. The focus also was on coping strategies that are significant in dealing with work-nonwork interference. The possible moderation brought about by these coping strategies was also investigated. Various hypotheses related to the overall objective were tested in the empirical study. The design used for this study was a cross-sectional survey design undertaken among ministers of the three sister churches mentioned. Various job demands, job resources, work-non-work interference and coping strategies were measured. This was done by employing the instruments of Peeters, Montgomery, Bakker and Schaufeli, (2005); Buys and Rothmann (2009); Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothman, 2010; Geurts et al. (2005) and Carver, Scheier and Weintraub (1989). Construct validity of all the instruments were proven with the CFA (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) in the SPSS program. Descriptive statistics, cronbach alpha coefficients, Pearson and Spearman product-moment correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Moderation regression analyses were also done to test for possible moderation of specific coping strategies. Results indicated that cognitive demands were related to the dimension of work-parent interference. Emotional demands and pace and amount of work had a relation with all the various dimensions of the work-non-work interference. Congregational support related work-home interference as well as work-religion/spirituality interference. Financial support, lack of autonomy, as well as social support, related to all three dimensions of work-non-work interference. Job significance related work-religion/spirituality interference, whereas job accomplishment predicted work-home interference and work-religion/spirituality interference. The results of the predictors on work-parent interference included the following: cognitive demands, pace and amount of work, financial support and turning-to-religion. Work-home interference was predicted by the variables pace and amount of work and financial support. Work-religion/spirituality interference were predicted by pace and amount of work, job significance and turning to religion. The various coping strategies (turning-to-religion, seeking-emotional-support, active coping, acceptance coping, planning and avoidance coping) functioned as moderators between certain specific job demands, job resources and dimensions of work-non-work interference. Limitations of the study were discussed and recommendations were put forward for future studies on this topic.