Analysing the effect of DSM projects at South African cement factories
Spangenberg, Johannes Paulus
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In any developing country an increasingly higher demand for electricity supply exists. South Africa experienced load shedding during late 2007 and early 2008 and again in 2014 due to a supply shortfall. New power stations are being built to increase the capacity of the national power grid. However this is a lengthy process. Demand Side Management (DSM) was adopted by Eskom’s Integrated Demand Management (IDM) division. DSM is a short-term solution to stabilise the national grid in South Africa by managing the electricity demand on the consumer’s or client’s side. DSM aims to reduce the electricity consumption with immediate results in the short-term. DSM projects were successfully implemented at nine South African cement factories since 2012. Cement factories are ideal for the implementation of DSM projects for the following reasons: cement factories are energy intensive; have adequate reserve production capacity; sufficient storage capacity and interruptible production schedules. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of DSM projects at South African cement factories. A detailed understanding of the cement production process is a prerequisite. Therefore a critical review of energy utilisation in the cement industry was conducted. Previous work done in the cement production field is evaluated to identify the possible literature shortfall on DSM projects. A set of five distinctive parameters was derived from the literature survey to quantify the possible effects of DSM projects at cement factories. The parameters are demand reduction and electricity cost; production targets; infrastructure; product quality and sustainability. One cement factory, Factory #1, was selected as a primary case study for the analysis model. Factory #1 was used to determine and quantify the effects of DSM projects at cement factories. A simulation was developed to verify the analysis model outcome. DSM projects were implemented at various factories in South Africa and the results from nine sites were used to validate the aim of this study. The study concluded that most DSM projects at South African cement factories were sustainable. Both the electricity supplier and the factories benefitted from the projects. The funding received from Eskom to implement DSM projects is a short-term initiative. However, sustainability of DSM projects is made possible in the long-term by the substantial electricity cost savings on the client’s or factory’s side.
- Engineering