Evaluating the Tomatis® Method in promoting effective self-regulation in university students
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This study contributed to the exploration of the applicability, value and impact of the Tomatis® Method as an instrument in promoting effective self-regulation in university students through the improvement of listening skills. Listening is a crucial aspect in self-regulation that does not appear to be adequately valued and utilised in current programmes designed to improve self-regulation skills. This study is presented in a three-manuscript format. The first manuscript investigated the availability of scientific evidence on the nature and value of programmes in general, as opposed and in comparison to the Tomatis® Method, in promoting well-being and self-regulation of tertiary students. A systematic literature review was conducted for this manuscript. A total of 35 articles met the inclusion criteria and specific emphasis was placed on exploring the contents and limitations of interventions, conducted within tertiary learning contexts. Results indicate that although various intervention models and strategies seem to be effective in promoting students’ self-regulation and well-being, actual mechanisms of change are still unknown to a large extent. Positive relationships were found between listening and aspects of self-regulation. The Tomatis® Method was shown to compare well with other interventions for the promotion of self-regulation. The second manuscript consequently focused on evaluating the extent to which the Tomatis® Method improve self-regulation in a sample of South African university students (N=49). A concurrent, mixed method, three-group pre-post and repeated post-assessment design, was used. The Tomatis® Method had a positive impact on hypo-responsiveness in the left ear and spatialization of the right ear, on introjected regulation and perseverance, as well as on self-regulation as a psychological and social strength (well-being). Benefits were also qualitatively observed regarding improved listening in social and academic contexts, attention and awareness, self-control and interpersonal regulation. Quantitative benefits regarding self-regulation obtained by the Tomatis group were shared to a certain extent by the Mozart group, while the benefits regarding self-regulation as psychological and social strength were only in comparison to the control group. The Tomatis® Method has potential to improve the self-regulation skills of tertiary students; however, more research needs to be done, with larger random samples to determine the extent to which the findings can be generalised, as well as to determine the possible role mediating and moderating variables play in the relationship between listening, self-regulation and psychological well-being. The third and final manuscript aimed to develop a conceptual model that explains the perceived effect of the Tomatis® Method on students’ self-regulation. Interactive Qualitative Analysis (Northcutt & McCoy, 2004) was used to identify critical factors in participants’ experience of the Tomatis® Method and perceived improvement in self-regulation. The seven participants, who completed a Tomatis® Method programme, identified five themes of which 40% of the relationship pairs explained 68.085% of the variance found in the model. Findings confirmed that the Tomatis® Method is an effective mechanism for the promotion of self-regulation and behavioural change. More research is required to further explore the applicability of the Tomatis® Method as an effective approach to enhance self-regulation. It was concluded that the study mainly contributes by addressing the gap that exists between self-regulation and auditory processing and by showing the important role it plays in attention, specifically in relating self to self, to others and the environment on affective and general sensory integration levels.
- Health Sciences