Electricity cost optimisation of a surface potable water pump system
Slade, Michael Peter
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South Africa is fast approaching an era where its electrical energy demand will surpass the generating capacity of it's primary utility. The reason for this is due to the fact that over the past 10 years, the economic growth in South Africa has increased considerably and has become very energy intensive. South African electrical energy consumption is currently estimated to be growing at a rate of around 1 000 MW per year. Due to the electrical energy demand being the greatest during peak-times, Eskom has introduced various "time of use" tariff structures, such as Megaflex and Ruraflex. These two tariff structures differentiate between standard, peak and off-peak periods of the day, as well as different seasons of the year. The tariffs for these different scenarios are adjusted such that the consumers are persuaded into avoiding unnecessary electrical energy consumption during peak periods. It has been identified that electrical energy consumption can be split into two categories. One of the categories considers sectors where there are a large number of electrical energy consumers, each utilising a negligible amount of power. The other category considers sectors where there are few electrical energy consumers, each utilising large amounts of power. This therefore means that the consumers in the latter category have a great potential in implementing more efficient ways of consuming power. In order to try and control the electrical energy demand problem in South Africa, Eskom has implemented a DSM (Demand Side Management) programme in order to help the larger energy consumers in shifting their peak-time loads to off-peak periods. If the client wishes to shift their load to off-peak periods, Eskom will assist by funding all costs to carry out such a project. According to Eskom's monitoring and verification team, Eskom's DSM initiative has proven to be highly successful. Since the inception of Eskom's DSM programme in 2003, up until the end of 2005, an accumulated total load reduction of 296.3 MW has successfully been realised. At present, most water distribution schemes have been developed without making use of Eskom's DSM initiative. As these schemes consume considerable amounts of electrical energy, they are prime candidates for an initiative such as Eskom's DSM initiative. It had previously been identified that the Vaal Gamagara Water Scheme, situated in Delportshoop, was a prime candidate for Eskom's DSM initiative. Presented in this dissertation are the findings of the DSM investigation. Although the project has yet to be implemented, the proposed intervention methodology was manually tested, where a 3 MW load shift in the evening peak and a 3.6 MW load shift in the morning peak was achieved. If the current intervention methodology is maintained, the annual savings will be in the region of R 830,000.00.
- Engineering