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dc.contributor.authorBouwman, Hindrik
dc.contributor.authorGovender, Danny
dc.contributor.authorPolder, Anuschka
dc.contributor.authorUnderhill, Les
dc.identifier.citationBouwman, H. et al. 2015. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment. Chemosphere, 126:1-10. []en_US
dc.identifier.issn1879-1298 (Online)
dc.description.abstractThe African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviouren_US
dc.subjectSpheniscus demersusen_US
dc.subjectIndian Oceanen_US
dc.subjecteggshell thicknessen_US
dc.subjectAtlantic Oceanen_US
dc.subjectpersistent organic pollutantsen_US
dc.titleChlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessmenten_US
dc.contributor.researchID10063773 - Bouwman, Hindrik
dc.contributor.researchID23207256 - Polder, Anuschka

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