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Growth differentiating factor-15 and its association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors: the African-PREDICT study.
Background and aims Growth differentiating factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress-induced and cardio-protective cytokine, reported to be influenced by a number of cardiovascular risk factors. In older adults, GDF-15 associated ...
Ethnicity and arterial stiffness
Early vascular aging reflects increased arterial stiffness of central blood vessels at young chronological ages and powerfully predicts cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of routine brachial blood pressure ...