'n Vereenvoudigde model om handelsmerklojaliteit van vinnig-bewegende verbruikersgoedere te meet
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Since the emergence of branding as an approach to marketing, the concept has been received with a great deal of interest and has stimulated ever-increasing research in the area. Businesses have realised the importance of retaining existing customers and have begun to identify and apply ways to build long-term relationships with customers. These relationships with customers require an understanding of customer needs, business requirements and the influences that create a longterm relation, which is more commonly known as brand loyalty. Several research studies, including this one, present the results of brand loyalty research in the form of a conceptual model. From an academic viewpoint, the identification and application of all the relevant influences are essential in the construction of a model that can guide the promotion of brand loyalty. The extensive review of literature and previously tested brand loyalty models resulted in the identification of initially 58, then 26, and eventually the final 12 influences that directly affect brand loyalty. These influences have been well researched and documented by Moolla and Bisschoff in their research to construct a model that could measure brand loyalty. The primary theoretical background and concepts in brand loyalty for this article ranged from the history of branding to the results of brand loyalty studies conducted over the past five years, as well as from seminal older sources. However, although the measuring model already explained a significant portion of the variance, a total of 12 constructs as measured by 50 criteria could be challenging in data collection and measurement. Therefore, the primary objective of the research was to diminish the number of constructs and criteria within the constraint of not diminishing the proportion of variance explained by the model. This reduction of the initial 12 brand loyalty influences presented an even more manageable research model that can be employed to measure brand loyalty. The empirical study was conducted among 550 customers who had access to a wide range of fast-moving consumer goods. The results were analysed by the process of factor analysis. The results showed that the 12 brand loyalty influences could successfully be limited to nine, whereas the number of criteria employed to measure them could be reduced to 39. Interestingly, the original two influences “culture” and “brand performance” combined to form a new brand loyalty influence, signifying that the performance of a brand is culturally influenced. This is an important finding in a culturally diverse business environment (such as South Africa, for example). In addition, the constraint could be maintained, and the variance explained improved marginally from 89.07% to 90.27%. The uniqueness and value of the research are embedded in the evaluation of each brand loyalty influence that is collectively assembled in one model. As a result, an important contribution of the study is therefore the simplification of the brand loyalty model, which enables managers to measure and strategically manage brand loyalty. OPSOMMING: Moolla en Bisschoff het ŉ model ontwikkel om handelsmerklojaliteit te meet. Dit is in verskeie ondernemings getoets en betroubaar bevind. Hierdie navorsingstuk is ŉ verlengstuk van hierdie navorsing. Die doel was om die model en sy akkuraatheid te verfyn en dit verder te ontwikkel tot ŉ empiries werkende model wat handelsmerklojaliteit kan meet. Die oorspronklike model het ŉ sterk teoretiese basis gebruik om 26 handelsmerklojaliteitsinvloede te identifiseer wat in die verlede deur verskeie navorsers in hul handelsmerklojaliteitsmodelle gebruik is. Hierdie invloede is verminder tot 12 prominente invloede ten einde die handelsmerklojaliteitsmodel te ontwikkel. Deur faktoranalise as ŉ suiweringsmeganisme aan te wend, bewys hierdie navorsingstuk se resultate dat, na drie rondtes van verfyning van die metingskriteria, ŉ uitstekende kumulatiewe variansie van 90% behaal is. Daarbenewens kon die oorspronklike 12 handelsmerkinvloede tot nege invloede verminder word. Die oorspronklike 50 metingskriteria is ook in die nuwe empiriese model tot 39 verminder – nog ŉ aanduiding van die vereenvoudiging van die oorspronklike model – terwyl die bruikbaarheid in ŉ bedryfs- sowel as akademiese omgewing verbeter het. Die resultate is tot ŉ groot mate bevestigend van aard – dit bevestig bestaande handelsmerklojaliteitsinvloede. Daar is egter ŉ aantal lae bydraende metingskriteria geïdentifiseer en weggelaat uit die model.