Current and next-generation bluetongue vaccines: requirements, strategies, and prospects for different field situations
Van Rijn, Piet A.
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Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes the hemorrhagic disease bluetongue (BT) in ruminants. The best way to control outbreaks is vaccination. Currently, conventionally modified-live and inactivated vaccines are commercially available, which have been successfully used to control BT, but nonetheless have their specific shortcomings. Therefore, there is a need for improved BT vaccines. The ideal BT vaccine is efficacious, safe, affordable, protective against multiple serotypes and enables the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Different field situations require specific vaccine profiles. Single serotype outbreaks in former BT-free areas need rapid onset of protection against viremia of the respective serotype. In contrary, endemic multiple serotype situations require long-lasting protection against all circulating serotypes. The ideal BT vaccine for all field situations does not exist and balancing between vaccine properties is needed. Many new vaccines candidates, ranging from non-replicating subunits to replicating next-generation reverse genetics based vaccines, have been developed. Some have been tested extensively in large numbers of ruminants, whereas others were developed recently and have only been tested in vitro and in mice models. Most vaccine candidates are promising, but have their specific shortcomings and advantages. In this review, current and next-generation BT vaccines are discussed in the light of prerequisites for different field situations