Comparing trust levels of male and female managers: measurement invariance of the behavioural trust inventory
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Despite the widely acknowledged need for validated trust measurement instruments and the legal obligation to ensure that psychometric tests are unbiased towards different groups in South Africa, no attempt has ever been made to address the aim of this study, which is to investigate the measurement invariance of the Behavioural Trust Inventory for managers of different genders. A cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample (N = 539) was used. The Behavioural Trust Inventory and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The results showed that a two-factor model (consisting of reliance and disclosure) fitted the data best. Measurement invariance by gender was computed with the establishment of subsequent invariance constraints in the model parameters across groups. Configural, metric, and partial scalar invariances of the two-factor model of the Behavioural Trust Inventory were confirmed across male and female managers. One item that measures one's willingness to share personal beliefs with a leader demonstrated a lack of scalar invariance for the female group; results for this item should therefore be treated with caution. Finally, latent factor mean analyses revealed no significant differences between male and female managers on the trust scales.