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dc.contributor.authorThompson, L.A.
dc.contributor.authorIkenaka, Y.
dc.contributor.authorVan Vuren, J.J.
dc.contributor.authorWepener, V.
dc.contributor.authorSmit, N.J.
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-30T13:00:53Z
dc.date.available2017-10-30T13:00:53Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.citationThompson, L.A. et al. 2017. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Food additives and contaminants. Pt A: chemistry, analysis, control, exposure and risk assessment, 34(11):1959-1969. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2017.1357209]en_US
dc.identifier.issn1944-0049
dc.identifier.issn1944-0057 (Online)
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10394/25961
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2017.1357209
dc.identifier.urihttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19440049.2017.1357209
dc.description.abstractOrganochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,pʹ-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,pʹ-DDT and then p,pʹ-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risken_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherTaylor & Francisen_US
dc.subjectDichlorodiphenyltrichloroe-thaneen_US
dc.subjectChickenen_US
dc.subjectEggen_US
dc.subjectHuman health risken_US
dc.subjectKwaZulu-Natalen_US
dc.titleConcentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africaen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.researchID27878368 - Ikenaka, Yoshinori
dc.contributor.researchID12579769 - Wepener, Victor
dc.contributor.researchID21250545 - Smit, Nicholas Jacobus


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