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Uncovering the metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to environmental hypoxia through metabolomics
Loots, Du Toit
Mienie, Lodewyk Japie
Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J.
Lindeque, Jeremie Zander
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Introduction Oxygen is essential for metabolic processes and in the absence thereof alternative metabolic pathways are required for energy production, as seen in marine invertebrates like abalone. Even though hypoxia has been responsible for significant losses to the aquaculture industry, the overall metabolic adaptations of abalone in response to environmental hypoxia are as yet, not fully elucidated. Objective To use a multiplatform metabolomics approach to characterize the metabolic changes associated with energy production in abalone (Haliotis midae) when exposed to environmental hypoxia. Methods Metabolomics analysis of abalone adductor and foot muscle, left and right gill, hemolymph, and epipodial tissue samples were conducted using a multiplatform approach, which included untargeted NMR spectroscopy, untargeted and targeted LC–MS spectrometry, and untargeted and semi-targeted GC-MS spectrometric analyses. Results Increased levels of anaerobic end-products specific to marine animals were found which include alanopine, strombine, tauropine and octopine. These were accompanied by elevated lactate, succinate and arginine, of which the latter is a product of phosphoarginine breakdown in abalone. Primarily amino acid metabolism was affected, with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism assisting with anaerobic energy production to a lesser extent. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with the largest metabolic changes in the adductor muscle. Conclusions From this investigation, it becomes evident that abalone have well-developed (yet understudied) metabolic mechanisms for surviving hypoxic periods. Furthermore, metabolomics serves as a powerful tool for investigating the altered metabolic processes in abalone.