A scoping review of digital open badge ecosystems in relation to resource-constrained environments
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This article presents a scoping review of digital open badge ecosystems. A scoping review can be seen as a methodology for systematically assessing the breadth of available research literature. This article is aimed at identifying the nature, extent and current understanding of digital open badge ecosystems. Scoping reviews follow many of the same methodological steps as systematic reviews where the reliability of results and the potential for replication remain essential. As such, this review follows the eight steps outlined by Okoli and Schabram. From the 1608 studies identified, 41 were considered relevant for inclusion criteria and thus included in a final sample. Some relevant websites and the so-called grey literature were included. These were evaluated according to the inclusion criteria and were categorised. Further subcategories were identified which include the notion of digital badges (n = 35) and open digital badges (n = 18), elements of a digital open badge ecosystem (n = 27) and reported implementations (n = 29). The scoping review presents a literature repository that can be used by practitioners and researchers interested in the application of digital open badges for the establishment of a digital open badge ecosystem. The review also serves to highlight the potential benefits this can have for resource-constrained environments.