Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles obtained using Lavandula × intermedia
Elemike, Elias E.
Onwudiwe, Damian C.
Ekennia, Anthony C.
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The use..... of aqueous leaf extract of Lavandula × intermedia for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is presented. The plant extract was obtained by boiling dried leaves and using the obtained filtrate for the synthesis of AgNPs. The study was conducted to investigate an ecofriendly approach to metal nanoparticle synthesis and to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of both the aqueous plant extract and resulting silver nanoparticles against different microbes using the disc diffusion method. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was monitored using ultraviolet–visible (UV–v is) spectroscopy, which showed a localized surface plasmon resonance band at 411 nm and a shift of the band to higher wavenumber of 422 nm after 90 min of reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy of the obtained AgNPs revealed their crystalline nature, with average size of 12.6 nm. Presence of elemental silver was further confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed presence of phytochemicals from Lavandula × intermedia leaf extract on the AgNPs. The AgNPs showed good antimicrobial activity with inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 23 mm; the largest inhibition zone (23 mm) occurred against Escherichia coli. Generally, the AgNPs displayed more antimicrobial activity against all investigated pathogens compared with Lavandula × intermedia leaf extract, and were also more active than streptomycin against Klebsiella oxytoca and E. coli at the same concentration. The silver nanoparticles showed prominent antimicrobial activity with a lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 15 μg/mL against E. coli, K. oxytoca, and Candida albicans.