The non-monetary quality of city life in South Africa
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In contrast to most research on the non-monetary quality of life, which relies on subjective indicators, we construct objective measures of the non-monetary quality of life using regression methods, for South Africa's cities. We also analyse the extent to which the various cities have been able to turn improvements in per capita incomes (monetary quality of life) into non-monetary quality of life – as reflected for instance in a better environment, higher literacy and longer lives. When monetary quality of life measures are used for South Africa's cities, the ranking in 2004 was led by Johannesburg, Tshwane, Ekurhuleni, Cape Town, Durban and Port Elizabeth. However when residuals from a regression of per capita income on (HDI) are used as a measure of non-monetary quality of life (i.e. the proportion of HDI not explained by variation in incomes), coastal cities tend to obtain generally higher rankings, with Cape Town ranked first, followed by Ekurhuleni, Durban, Port Elizabeth and then Johannesburg and Tshwane.