Spatial planning approaches towards a more sustainable local transport network
Cullinan, R. R.
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The spatial planning and implementation of local transportation systems have been restricted by limited modal options. The purpose of transportation modes is to increase efficiency and move towards sustainable cities. Public transportation has been disregarded as a significant factor in cities and has led to the motor vehicle-dominated city. This causes congestion, inefficiency, decrease in productivity, increasing travel costs, increasing travel time, decreasing economic growth, numerous safety hazards, lack of sustainable transportation and environmental damage. The problem is evident in the lack of local multimodal transportation systems. This creates mass inefficiency, which is highly problematic for the urban spatial structure. The spatial implementation of transportation infrastructure is significant for mobility between the central business district (CBD) (places of employment) and residential areas. This is especially visible in the study area. Potchefstroom lacks effective spatial planning for local transportation systems and neglects pedestrians. The city is focused on spatial planning of road infrastructure, while lacking pedestrian walkways in various areas of development. There are no bicycle lanes, which forces cyclists to use road infrastructure intended for cars. This causes conflict and is highly unsafe. Potchefstroom lacks public transportation services and has resorted to the use of motor vehicles as the last option to achieve mobility. This has become problematic, since individuals walk and cycle despite lack of appropriate infrastructure. This city is also home to the North West University, which is surrounded by student accommodation in close proximity, hence the importance of facilities for cycling and walking. The research aims to identify local transportation modes that could be spatially and practically implemented in the urban structure. The literature research aims to identify various urban and spatial models that have previously successfully been used. This would illustrate the principles of each spatial structure and the aims and objective of the design, thus creating a foundation for the various urban and spatial structures, which involves the principles of implementation. All the objectives were addressed throughout the research document (refer to Chapters 4, 6 and 8). The empirical research approach is based on a comparative analysis between the implementation of local transportation systems in developed countries and the principles for successful implementation. The comparative analysis approach attempts to identify various spatial implementations, tools, policies, land use and political aspects that are successfully implemented in a sustainable city. The results illustrate that the spatial integration of local transportation systems is highly significant when developing a sustainable city. Spatial integration of local transportation systems is seen as highly significant, but was not the only factor to be considered. The factors identified include the spatial layout of the development, the integration of the environment, the urban structure, the distance between the residential area and CBD district, available public transportation systems and a compact city structure. This has been illustrated in various urban models discussed in Chapter 3, which illustrate whether public transportation is required or if different sectors are within walking distance. Where all objectives have been addressed and explained extensively in chapter 8. This research document presents first-world recommendations for sustainable implementation of transportation, as well as illustrating a preliminary design for the implementation of transportation systems within the spatial structure of Potchefstroom, South Africa.