Polyhalogenated compounds (Halogenated natural products and POPs) in sardine (Sardinops sagax) from the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans
Van der Lingen, Carl D.
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Halogenated natural products (HNPs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were quantified in South African sardines (Sardinops sagax) from one site in the South Atlantic Ocean and one in the Indian Ocean. At both sites, HNPs [2,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-heptachloro-1′-methyl-1,2′-bipyrrole (Q1), mixed halogenated compound 1 (MHC-1), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA), 2′-MeO-BDE 68 (BC-2), and 6-MeO-BDE 47 (BC-3)] were 1 order of magnitude higher concentrated than anthropogenic POPs [mainly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), ∼3 ng/g lipids]. MHC-1 and Q1 were the major HNPs in the samples from both sites, contributing with up to 49 and 52 ng/g lipids, respectively. The same 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDE)/PCB ratio suggested that the major POPs were evenly distributed at both sites. Different ratios of Q1/MHC-1 in the samples from the Indian (∼2:1) and South Atlantic (∼1:1) Oceans indicated that the occurrence of HNPs in seafood is difficult to predict and should be investigated more in detail. The PCB levels in sardines were found to pose no risk to human consumers, whereas HNPs could not be evaluated because of the lack of toxicological data