Multiple outflows in the high-mass cluster-forming region G25.82-0.17
Chibueze, James O.
Kim, Mi Kyoung
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We present results of continuum and spectral line observations with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and 22 GHz water (H2O) maser observations using the KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) array (KaVA) toward a high-mass star-forming region, G25.82–0.17. Multiple 1.3 mm continuum sources are revealed, indicating the presence of young stellar objects (YSOs) at different evolutionary stages, namely an ultracompact H ii region, G25.82–E, a high-mass young stellar object (HM-YSO), G25.82–W1, and starless cores, G25.82–W2 and G25.82–W3. Two SiO outflows, at N–S and SE–NW orientations, are identified. The CH3OH 8−1–70 E line, known to be a Class I CH3OH maser at 229 GHz, is also detected, showing a mixture of thermal and maser emission. Moreover, the H2O masers are distributed in a region ~0farcs25 shifted from G25.82–W1. The CH3OH 224–215 E line shows a compact ringlike structure at the position of G25.82–W1 with a velocity gradient, indicating a rotating disk or envelope. Assuming Keplerian rotation, the dynamical mass of G25.82–W1 is estimated to be >25 M ⊙ and the total mass of 20–84 M ⊙ is derived from the 1.3 mm continuum emission. The driving source of the N–S SiO outflow is G25.82–W1 while that of the SE–NW SiO outflow is uncertain. Detection of multiple high-mass starless/protostellar cores and candidates without low-mass cores implies that HM-YSOs could form in individual high-mass cores as predicted by the turbulent core accretion model. If this is the case, the high-mass star formation process in G25.82 would be consistent with a scaled-up version of low-mass star formation