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dc.contributor.authorTangstad, Merete
dc.contributor.authorBeukes, Johan Paul
dc.contributor.authorSteenkamp, Joalet
dc.contributor.authorRingdalen, Eli
dc.identifier.citationTangstad, M. et al. 2019. Coal-based reducing agents in ferroalloys and silicon production. (In Suárez-Ruiz, I., Diez, M.A. & Rubiera, F. eds. New trends in coal conversion combustion, gasification, emissions, and coking: 405-438). []en_US
dc.description.abstractManganese, chromium, and silicon ferroalloys are typical examples of alloys that are produced using carbon materials to remove oxygen from the raw materials. A majority of such alloys are currently produced in electric furnaces. The carbon material is chosen based on cost and properties such as content of trace elements and their physical strength. In addition, properties such as CO2 and SiO reactivity may affect the consumption of carbon and energy. Slag reactivity may also affect the quality of the final product, whereas the electrical resistivity of the carbon materials at high temperature will have an effect on the distribution of the temperature in the furnace and the stability of the operation. Finally, the environmental footprint of the operation will be indirectly affected by the carbon materials through CO2, SO2, and trace element emissionsen_US
dc.subjectCO2 reactivityen_US
dc.subjectCr ferroalloys productionen_US
dc.subjectElectrical resistivityen_US
dc.subjectMn ferroalloy productionen_US
dc.subjectSi ferroalloys productionen_US
dc.subjectSi productionen_US
dc.subjectSiO reactivityen_US
dc.subjectSlag reactivityen_US
dc.titleCoal-based reducing agents in ferroalloys and silicon productionen_US
dc.typeBook chapteren_US
dc.contributor.researchID10092390 - Beukes, Johan Paul

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