Influence of father involvement, gender and age on risk-taking and antisocial behaviours in Mahikeng, South Africa
Moamogwe, Keatlaretse Betty
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The general aim of this study was to explore the influence of father involvement, gender and age on risk-taking behaviours and antisocial behaviours among adolescents in Mafikeng, South Africa. This study was guided by the following four hypotheses: (1) Father involvement has a significant influence on risk-taking and antisocial behaviours among adolescents; (2) Gender will significantly influence male and female scores on risk-taking and antisocial behaviours of adolescents.; (3) Age will significantly influence risk-taking and antisocial behaviours of adolescents; and (4) There will be a significant interaction among father involvement, gender, and age on risk-taking and antisocial behaviours. A questionnaire divided into four sections was used to collect data. Section A requested demographic information from participants, Section B was the father involvement scale, Section C consisted of the antisocial behaviour scale while Section D comprised the risk-taking behaviour scale. The psychometric properties of all the scales were valid and reliable. Data were collected from 479 participants, at two high schools in Mafikeng. Convenient sampling was employed in order to collect data from participants. The ages of participants ranged from 14-20 years: ( X =16.6; SD=l.11 ). The number of participants who completed the questionnaire were as follows: males =299; and females = 180. The hypotheses of this study were tested using 2X2X2 A OVA. Based on the findings of the study, hypothesis 1 revealed the significant influence of father involvement on risk-taking behaviour, F (1 ,471) = 3.35, p<.05 and on antisocial behaviour F (1 ,471 ) = 3.38, p<.05. Hypothesis 2 also revealed significant influence of gender, F (1 , 471 ) = 23.67, p<.001 on risk-taking behaviour and F (1 ,471) = 33 .97, p<.001 on antisocial behaviour. Hypothesis 3 did not reveal any significant influence of age on risk-taking behaviour F (1 ,471) = .015, p>.05 and also no significant influence on antisocial behaviour, F (1,471) = .90, p>.05. Hypothesis 4 (which expected interaction of all the variables), was also significant as predicted for risk-taking behaviour F (1,471)=.72, p >.05 and antisocial behaviour F(l ,471) =.326, p >.05 Recommendations: Fathers should be involved in the upbringing of their children by ensuring that they enhance father-child relationships with their sons and daughters. They should aim at providing care and support to the children. Psycho-education is of paramount importance. Community awareness on negative effects of father involvement on children behaviour should be done. Focus should be on risk-taking and antisocial behaviours. Government should consider risk-taking and antisocial behaviours as important aspects in programmes that are aimed at improving the mental health of adolescents and learners in South Africa. Further studies should be conducted on father involvement and other behavioural problems. Schools should consider employment of clinical psychologists and counsellors to assist in managing behavioural problems of learners. These professionals will assist in preventing and treating risk-taking and antisocial behaviours of the learners. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that father involvement has an influence on risk-taking and antisocial behaviour among adolescents. Gender had a significant influence on risk-taking and antisocial behaviour among adolescents, but this study showed no significant influence of age on risk-taking and antisocial behaviour among adolescents. The study also did not reveal significant interaction of father involvement, gender, age on risk-taking and antisocial behaviour among adolescents.
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