Measuring the GRID in the Sepedi, Xitsonga and Tshivenda language groups in the South African Police Service
While the study of emotions is of universal interest because of its central role in the social sciences and humanities, emotions are of special interest for South Africa for both theoretical and applied reasons. South Africa, with its eleven official languages, is a true multicultural society with extreme differences in terms of culture, acculturation, and socio-economic status. Cultural frameworks differ substantially between ethno-cultural groups, and clarification of the differences between cultural frameworks can counter interpretation biases that could result in daily frictions and major conflicts. Additional fundamental cross-cultural research on emotional differences between cultural groups, together with the generation of a mutual understanding of the different cultural frameworks, makes these frameworks explicit and facilitates the incorporation of these frameworks into daily communication and interaction processes. The objectives of this research were to determine what the emotion structure of the Sepedi, Xitsonga and Tshivenda languages groups within a sample of Sepedi-, Xitsonga- and Tshivenda-speaking participants is, and how it compares with the European Emotion Structure. Furthermore this research aimed to establish the emotion structure and the relevant and representative features for each emotion component (such as appraisals, action tendencies, and subjective experiences) that have been encoded in a sample of Sepedi-, Xitsonga- and Tshivenda-speaking participants. Like\vise it was deemed necessary to verify (a) the extent to which the emotion words refer to specific positions on each of the emotion features of these language groups and (b) the extent of similarity or dissimilarity between emotion experiences of the Sepedi, Xitsonga and Tshivenda groups in the SAPS, as well as to compare the meaning structure between a "bottom-up" and a "top-down" (as conducted in Nicholls' research in 2008) approach between Sepedi-, Xitsonga- and Tshivenda-speaking participants. A survey design with convenience sampling was used to achieve the research objectives. The study population (n=390) consisted of Sepedi-, Xitsonga- and Tshivenda-speaking entry-level police applicants from the South African Police Service (SAPS). The Sepedi, Xitsonga and Tshivenda GRlD questionnaires were administered. Statistical methods and procedures (multidimensional scaling and descriptive statistics) were used and Cronbachrs alpha coefficients were determined to analyse the results. Results of this study on the Sepedi, Xitsonga and Tshivenda cultural groups indicated the extraction of a two-factor model within the Sepedi group. Due to the extremely low reliability analyses of the Xitsonga and Tshivenda language groups' data, a reliable scale analysis and the meaning structures of these two groups could not be determined. The low reliabilities could be attributed to the direct language translation of the questionnaire and the assessment may not have captured the full understanding of the items in the GRlD instrument. Results of this study for the Sepedi language group corresponded well with the results found in the study for the Sepedi group conducted by Nicholls (2008) on the emotion lexicon on the Sepedi, Xitsonga and Tshivenda language groups in South Africa. The Nicholls study (2008) indicated the extraction of a three-dimensional structure (evaluation, arousal, dominance) and a four-factor loading (positive emotion, sadness, fear, anger) for the Sepedi-speaking language group. In comparison, this research presented the extraction of a two-dimensional structure (evaluation and arousal) and a two-factor loading (positive emotion and sadness). Emotion concepts of the Sepedi group indicated that basic emotion concepts (love, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and surprise) readily came to mind in both Nicholls' (2008) and this study. Emotion concepts listed by the Sepedi group could be interpreted as emotion words associated with social, personality or environmental aspects and may be related to negative evaluation, dominance and/or aggression. Recommendations for future research were made.