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dc.contributor.authorHamer, M.
dc.contributor.authorMalan, L.
dc.contributor.authorSchutte, A.E.
dc.contributor.authorHuisman, H.W.
dc.contributor.authorVan Rooyen, J.M.
dc.contributor.authorSchutte, Rudolph
dc.contributor.authorFourie, C.M.T.
dc.contributor.authorMalan, N.T.
dc.contributor.authorSeedat, Y.K.
dc.date.accessioned2012-09-06T11:14:37Z
dc.date.available2012-09-06T11:14:37Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.citationHamer, M. et al. 2011. Conventional and behavioral risk factors explain differences in sub-clinical vascular disease between black and Caucasian South Africans: the SABPA study. Atherosclerosis, 215(1):237-242. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.12.015]en_US
dc.identifier.issn1567-5688
dc.identifier.issn1878-5050 (Online)
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10394/7251
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.12.015
dc.descriptionOfficial Journal of the European Atherosclerosis Societyen_US
dc.description.abstractConventional and behavioral risk factors explain differences in sub-clinical vascular disease between black and Caucasian South Africans: The SABPA study Objectives: There is an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease among urban black Africans in South Africa, which has been largely explained by the transition from traditional African lifestyles to more westernized behavior. We examined the role of health behaviors in explaining the excess burden of sub clinical vascular disease seen in black Africans compared to Caucasians. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, comprising of urban African teachers (n = 192 black, 206 Caucasian) working for one of the four Kenneth Kaunda Education districts in the North West Province, South Africa. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and objectively measured physical activity (Actical® accelerometers), smoking (confirmed by serum cotinine), and alcohol (serum gamma glutamyl transferase) were assessed. The main outcome was a marker of sub-clinical vascular disease, mean carotid intima media thickness (mCIMT), measured using high resolution ultrasound. Results: Compared with Caucasians, the black Africans demonstrated higher mCIMT (age and sex adjusted ˇ = 0.044, 95% CI, 0.024–0.064 mm). The blacks also had higher 24 h systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, adiposity, and C-reactive protein. In addition, blacks were less physically active (790.0 kcal/dvs 947.3 kcal/d, p < 0.001), more likely to smoke (25% vs 16.3%, p = 0.002), and demonstrated higher alcohol abuse (gamma glutamyl transferase, 66.6_/L vs 27.2_/L, p < 0.001) compared with Caucasians. The difference in mCIMT between blacks and Caucasians was attenuated by 34% when conventional risk factors were added to the model and a further 18% when health behaviors were included. Conclusion: There is an excess burden of sub clinical vascular disease seen in black Africans compared to Caucasians, which can be largely explained by health behaviors and conventional risk factors.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.subjectBlack Africanen_US
dc.subjectcarotid intima media thicknessen_US
dc.subjecthealth disparitiesen_US
dc.subjecthealth behaviorsen_US
dc.titleConventional and behavioral risk factors explain differences in sub-clinical vascular disease between black and Caucasian South Africans:  the SABPA studyen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.researchID10062491 - Fourie, Catharina Maria Theresia
dc.contributor.researchID10062718 - Huisman, Hugo Willem
dc.contributor.researchID10060871 - Malan, Leoné
dc.contributor.researchID10056173 - Malan, Nicolaas Theodor
dc.contributor.researchID10922180 - Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
dc.contributor.researchID12201405 - Schutte, Rudolph
dc.contributor.researchID10059539 - Van Rooyen, Johannes Marthinus
dc.contributor.researchID22684808 - Hamer, Mark


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