Riglyne vir 'n perseptueel–motoriese intervensieprogram om die leergereedheid van Graad–R–leerders te verhoog
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The challenges of backlogs experienced amongst Grade R-learners, results in learners not being school and learning ready when entering Grade 1. Obstacles for example are insufficient stimulation, under developed perception, and poor gross and fine motor skills, require early intervention and ought to receive attention in Grade R. From the socialecological perspective and taking into consideration the great amount of learners in South Africa originating from deprived environments, the study is focused in the domain of the Social Deprivation Theory. The bio-ecological context within which learners find themselves, influence the cognitive and perceptual development of every learner. Epistemologically the study focuses on the similarity between Critical Theory and Interpretivism. Critical Theory highlights the meaning of experience as manifested in relation to social circumstances and developmental background. Interpretivism in this study focuses on the meaning which individuals attach to their experiences in the spotlight and results in greater understanding and insight of the researched phenomenon. Circumstances of deprivation occur worldwide, even in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and England. Already for decades in USA young children gain in their development through intervention in early childhood (Ludwig & Phillips, 2007). Duncan and Brooks-Gunn (2000) identified a relation between child poverty/deprivation and poor school performance in the USA. Research in England (Thompson, 2000) shows that the impact of social neglect of children have serious consequences. The National Education Policy Act (Pandor, 2008; SA DvO, 1997:2) uses Early Childhood Development (ECD) as an umbrella term which refers to the development processes whereby children physically, intellectually, emotionally, spiritually, morally and socially grow and develop from birth to the age of nine years (SA, DoE, 1995, White paper 5,). The kind of education learners receive in Grade R is crucial to their further development in the education system (Van Zyl, Le Roux & Janse van Rensburg 2011, DvO, 1997:2). Learners lacking an adequate foundation may experience difficulties throughout their school career. In South Africa there is concern as to the standard of education and training, manifesting in a low pass rate on Grade 12-level. This study is undertaken to determine the current shortages in the South African educational system which may hinder the learning potential of Grade R-learners. An attempt is made to determine which handicaps/backlogs Grade R-learners experience, which fits the framework of the deprivation theory, which can undermine learner readiness. This study determine whether intervention by means of a perceptual-motor skills programme can enhance the school readiness of pre-school learners. Finally to determine which shortages/ backlogs exists in the perceptual-motor skills of Grade R nlearners from deprived backgrounds in South Africa. Guidelines for a perceptual-motor intervention program was developed through this study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data-analysis is used in this study (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson en Collins, 2009). The dissertation is compiled in article format. In the first article of the study, the issues of teacher development and support mechanisms and equipment at primary schools and kindergartens are explored. Qualitative and phenomenological research was undertaken and information was gathered by means of questionnaires directed at teachers. In the following article the school readiness of 48 Grade R-learners from deprived backgrounds were tested. The research participants came from similar sosio-economic background, from quintile one and two schools. Seeing that those were the only primary schools with Grade R classes in that area, they were identified on behalf of their availability. In this study the data was analysed and descriptive statistics (means, averages, standard deviations, minimum and maximum values, percentages) and t-tests were used to determine variations in terms of perceptual motor skill development and learning readiness. An experimental group of 21 Grade R learners followed a 10 week long perceptual-motor skills intervention programme. In the follow-up school readiness test (article 3), results indicated that the intervention showed a positive response with regards to the school readiness of the Grade R learners. Drawing to a conclusion (article 4), the intervention programme is critically discussed and recommendations were made to all those concerned with Grade R teaching (teachers, principals, Departments of Education). The conclusion according to the results of the research shows that the intervention had a positive effect on the school and learning readiness of this group of Grade R learners.
- Education 
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