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Die ontwerp van 'n bevoegdheidsgerigte onderwysersopleidingsmodel in rekenaarondersteunde onderwys
Malan, Mathys Michiel
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1. INTRODUCTION: This research was undertaken out of a conviction that the training of teachers in the use of the computer as a teaching aid should be a priority in any teacher-training programme. This conviction was strengthened by a study of the literature on computer-based education, as well as by interviews with experts in this field during a study tour undertaken in the United Kingdom in 1983. HSRC research, having been done on a continuing base since 1980, also indicated that computer-based education should receive high priority in the Republic of South Africa. 2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: This research attempts to answer the following questions: What training should be given to prospective teachers in their pre-service training to make them competent in the use of the computer as a teaching aid? What competencies should the teacher have in the future with regard to the use of the computer as a teaching aid? Could these competencies be integrated with the present curriculum, and could this curriculum be implemented in a model for the training of teachers? 3. AIM OF THE RESEARCH: Owing to the near absence of teacher-training programmes in computer-based education, the aim of this research is to identify the competencies necessary for a teacher to be able to use the computer efficiently as a teaching aid, to incorporate these competencies in a curriculum for computer-based education and to develop a teacher-training model. 4. HYPOTHESES: The following hypotheses to be accepted or rejected as a result of of the research, were set up: - There is a need for the training of teachers in computer based education in the RSA, the content for this training exists and there are certain competencies which every trained teacher should have. - Content and competencies can be integrated into a competency-based teacher-training model. - Content and competencies can be integrated into the existing curricula for teacher training. 5. METHOD AND PROGRAMME OF RESEARCH: A thorough study of recent literature, i.e. books, articles and conference proceedings, was made. This formed the basis for the development of a theory on a teacher-training model in computer based education. From this theory a teacher-training model in computer-based education was deduced. In chapter one the problem, aims and hypotheses are formulated, as well as the research programme. A thorough situation analysis, both from a computer-based education perspective and from a teacher-training viewpoint, is made in chapter two. Relevant terms are defined, and the relationship between computer-based education and the didactic principles analysed. It is shown that the computer can be used in a variety of teaching and learning modes, for instance drill and practice, tutorial, dialogue, simulation, games, evaluation, etc. The place of the computer in the teaching situation is analysed, as well as its potential and limitations as a teaching aid. In chapter three the goals and aims of a teacher-training programme in computer-based education are discussed. A general goal is formulated for two courses, namely a basic general course for all education students, and a course for students wanting to specialize in computer-based education. These genera1 goals are analysed into more specific aims, which in turn form the basis for the selection of course, content and the formulation of competencies in chapter four. This is followed in chapter five by a competency-based teacher-training model, and the research is concluded in chapter six with a summary and some recommendations. 6. FINDINGS FROM THE RESEARCH: 6.1 FINDINGS WITH REGARD TO THE HYPOTHESES: All the hypotheses stated in paragraph 4 of this summary can be accepted on the results of this research. A definite need for the training of teachers in computer-based education is revealed, the content for this training, and the competencies required are described. Content and competencies can be integrated into a competency-based teacher-training model, and can also be integrated into the existing curricula for teacher training. 6.2 FINDINGS WITH REGARD TO THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND THE AIMS OF THE RESEARCH: To answer the questions put in the formulation of the research problem, competencies had to be identified, a curriculum, as well as a competency-based training model, had to be designed. These were all achieved. It can therefore be concluded that the aims of the research were realised. 6.3 FINDINGS FROM THE LITERATURE: The world is on the threshold of a new era, the information era, which will replace the industrial era. It is in line with God's cultural command that the computer should be studied and used in order to help to accomplish God's plan for man. In a number of countries, for instance the United States of America, the United Kingdom and France, strategies have been implemented to promote computer-based education. There are a number of isolated, but well established efforts to implement computer-based education in the RSA. The Human Sciences Research Council is actively involved in research on computer-based education. Computers will become cheaper, more powerful and user-friendly, and will therefore play an ever-increasing role in the everyday life of each individual. A number of serious problems exist in connection with the implementation of computer-based education, for instance the present weak economic climate, black education explosion and the drive toward equality in standards of education in the RSA. From a computer perspective the greatest problems are the backlog in courseware (lesson material) suitable for South African schools, the incompatibility of South African curricula and imported programme packages, and practical problems in the development of courseware. From a teaching perspective, the following conclusions may be reached: - Several computer configurations, from mainframe to micro-computer, are suitable for teaching situations. - Several instructional modes are available in computer-based education, which makes it a very powerful teaching aid. - The computer can play an important role in problem solving strategies. - The simulation mode of computer-based education makes it possible to include projects in the curriculum which would otherwise be too costly, too dangerous or too long to include. - Computer-based education can make drill and practice situations less frustrating for all involved. - Computer-based education can be used effectively in evaluation. - The computer, as a new teaching aid, is in harmony with the existing didactic principles like motivation, individualisation, socialisation, mastery, etc. 7. RECOMMENDATIONS ARISING FROM THE RESEARCH: 7.1 Recommendations with regard to teacher training are the following: - all authorities concerned with teacher training should start as soon as possible with the training of teachers in computer-based education. - Training for students in preparation for secondary education should receive priority. - An interest group for computer-based education should be formed in each region. These groups can discuss problems and progress at meetings, newsletters can be sent to members, and other activities can be embarked upon to enhance the state-of-the-art of computer-based education. - The various education authorities should give serious thought to a strategy for in-service training in computer-based education. - Dialogue between the teacher training institutions and the computer industry, that is manufacturers and distributors of hardware and software, should be encouraged. Such dialogue is essential in view of the rapid changes taking place in the field of micro-electronics. - Training programmes should be reviewed at short intervals, due to the dynamic nature of this field. -Training programmes and courseware development-programmes should go hand in hand, because of the serious shortage of suitable courseware for the South African situation. - Lecturing staff at all training institutions, but especially those at which teachers are trained, should be involved, on a voluntary basis, in computer-based education projects. - Methods should be devised to encourage lecturing staff at training institutions to become involved in the development of courseware for their students, otherwise they are bound to continue in the traditional way of lecturing, and of writing research papers and textbooks. 7.2 Recommendations with regard to teaching practice are the following: - Education authorities must provide broad guidelines to schools with regard to computer-based education. At present every educational institution which becomes involved in computer-based education does so on its own initiative - there is no co-operation between different institutions. - Schools and other educational institutions should form computer-based education clubs or interest groups. - The implementation of computer-based education should be done with tact and without force, especially as far as practising teachers are concerned. - The computer can be used initially to lessen the teacher's administrative workload. - The enthusiastic and capable teacher who is interested in computer-based education should receive all help and encouragement possible. If possible, he should be freed from, extra-mural activities and be assigned to computer-based education only. - Schools and other educational institutions should actively support any action emanating from the authorities with regard to computer-based education. - Schools and other educational institutions should encourage computer literacy amongst their students through the formation of computer clubs. Recommendations with regard to further research are: - Research should be conducted on the training of teachers for computer-based education in the various educational systems for black and coloured people. This is necessary because of the vast differences in the initial situation and cultural background between the various groups. - Research should be done on the feasibility of a national strategy for the training of teachers in computer-based education, the introduction of computers into schools and the encouragement of computer literacy in general. - Research should be done on the development of a similar model for the training of teachers for primary education. - This model - and others - should be evaluated in practice. - The role and function of computer-based education in all the different subjects should be researched. - Research should be done with regard to the effect on the general public of a national strategy for computer-based education. - Continuous research should be done on how the computer can be used to 1mprove teaching. New developments in the field of hardware and courseware necessitate this. It is clear that the field of computer-based education is a dynamic, developing field, which is continually stimulating research.
- Education