Klasklimaat vir die onderrig van liggaamlike opvoeding
A school classroom is a complex, dynamic social system. As the formal and informal norms and rules of classroom behaviour evolve, a stable socio-psychological climate is created. Teachers frequently speak of a classroom's climate, atmosphere, tone or ambience and consider it to be both important in its own right and influential on student learning. Classroom climate is considered a useful criterion variable for evaluating the instructional and learning process. It helps educators to understand the social, emotional and psychological dimensions in classroom life. Over the past two decades, researchers have produced numerous studies attesting to the importance of classroom climate in mediating cognitive and affective outcomes. The three common approaches to studying classroom environment involve systematic observation, case studies and assessing student and teacher perceptions. Perceptual measures were used in this study. Although important educational climate work has been undertaken by researchers interested in a variety of school subject areas, very little research has been done on the classroom climate of physical education classes. The ultimate aim of the study was to derive knowledge of and insight into the classroom climate in physical education classes. To realise this goal the following aims were set for this study: To conceptualise and identify the determinants that decide classroom climate enhancement in general and specifically PE-classes by means of a literature study. To measure the reliability and validity of a suitable instrument to measure the classroom climate in PE-classes. To determine the classroom climate by means of the suitable measuring instrument. To achieve the first aim of the study an empirical literature survey was conducted where classroom climate was conceptualised and specific determinants were identified which could influence classroom climate in general and the classroom climate in PE-classes specifically. To achieve the second aim, a pilot study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of an adjusted form of the CES (CES-PE) and the ML-LO to be used in PE classes. Reliability and validity of the CES-PE and ML-LO to be used in PE settings, were proved. To achieve the third aim of the study a questionnaire study was conducted on 1178 pupils and 22 teachers in 11 schools of the Northwest and Gauteng provinces. The pupils included in the study ranged from standards 6 to 9. The results of the empirical research were as follows: The classroom climate experienced in PE-classes was regarded as being very positive. The PE teacher perceived the classroom climate in a more positive light than the pupils. There were no major differences between boys and girls of the classroom climate experienced. There were no major differences between the different standards of the classroom climate experienced. Some determinants that could influence classroom climate in PE-classes were measured with the ML-LO. Results thereof were that the pupils regarded the PE-teacher, PE-uniform, the status of PE, the use of PE in the school programme and the availability of PE-apparatus positively. There were some negative aspects, the main one being that there was not sufficient time to undress and dress and for hygiene care after PE-classes. The PE-teachers completed an additional questionnaire (MO-LO) to gather their views on certain aspects in PE classes. Two main findings came to light: firstly that PE-teachers regard themselves as being well equipped to teach PE at school and, secondly, that the main goal of the PE-teacher is to make PE-classes enjoyable and thereby foster a positive attitude towards physical activities and sport in the pupils. The following recommendation resulting from this research was considered to be the most important: There is a vast necessity for further research to be done in the RSA with regard to the creation of a positive classroom climate in secondary schools, especially in light of the new education policies. This aspect can be addressed by including courses in classroom climate at tertiary education centres.
- Humanities