Die effek van 'n loopbaanbeplanningsprogram op skoolverlaters in 'n gedepriveerde gemeenskap
Krüger, Catharina Sophia
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The current socio-political climate for reform in education has led psychologists to question the role and relevance of psychological services such as counselling in schools. Career counselling require urgent transformation along with the rest of the educational system. If human resources in the future South African society are to be developed and utilized to the maximum it is crucial for such services to address the needs not only of the privileged, but also the disadvantaged sections of the population. In South Africa large parts of the population are educationally disadvantaged and deprived. In the past career counsellors in South Africa has focused to a very large extent on the provision of a service to those people who attained a certain educational level. Until recently the majority of the population has suffered severe restrictions in this respect. In the present rapidly changing social, economical and political situation large numbers of young people are in need of career counselling. The significance of career counselling is evident in the relationship which exists between the individual, school, work and society. The link between the school leaver, school, work and community is crucial. Counselling should assist the school leaver to become more knowledgeable about his or her abilities, aspirations, and values of work. It enables the school leaver to get a grasp of the complexities of the world of work. It was against this background that the present pilot study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a career planning programme in providing school leavers from a deprived community with the conseptual tools necessary for career planning. The programme made use of an intensive progranune format which comprised sessions covering such activities as self-, career- and educational-awareness and decision making. Parts of a career workbook - ''Travelling the career highway" (Van Schoor, 1996) was used in this study. The book is aimed at making a contribution to the Reconstruction and Development Programme (Van Schoor, 1996:vii). Forty eight school leavers at Promosa Secondary were randomly assigned using the Solomon four group design. The Self Directed Search Questionnaire, the Commitment to Career Choices Scale and the Knowledge Of Occupation Fields Questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the career planning programme. Career differentiation, consistency, career information, career commitment, and the tendency to foreclose were used to indicate the impact. Clear improvements were found in levels of consistency. Significant improvements were found in differentiation, career information, career commitment and the tendency to foreclose. This study also indicates the limitation of career planning where additional input from the social environment is required to effect an even more significant positive impact. Future research should attempt to develop a more comprehensive intervention which includes the whole community.