Identifisering van risikofaktore wat bydra tot seksuele misbruik van kleuters in 'n informele nedersetting in Buffalo City
Nel, Petronella Susanna
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Sexual abuse of children is a reality that occurs in communities on a daily basis. In a specific informal settlement in Buffalo City, where the researcher has previously worked as social worker, statistics showed that children in their early childhood are the most vulnerable to sexual abuse. The parents' socio-economic circumstances lead to inadequate protection and security for their minor children, making them vulnerable to sexual abuse. Research shows that each community has specific risk and protection factors in respect of sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to explore and describe through a descriptive, qualitative design the risk factors that contribute to sexual abuse of children in a particular informal settlement in Buffalo City. The research question for the study reads as follows: What are the risk factors that contribute to sexual abuse of children in a particular informal settlement in Buffalo City? Sixteen participants were interviewed by means of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Purposeful, non-probability sampling was used to select parents or caregivers of children who were sexually abused as well as community leaders in the community to participate in the interviewing. Detailed reflections were obtained from participants of their perceptions of contributing risk factors that left the children vulnerable. These interviews were conducted with the use of an interview schedule that was compiled in accordance with a literature study and thereafter tested. The methods that were use to capture data were interviewing, observations, reflections and field notes. The interviews were transcribed for the purposes of data analysis and were analysed according to the steps of Creswell (2009). The ecological system perspective has served as the theoretical framework for this study, and five themes were identified in this context. These themes were divided into sub-themes and categories, and were discussed with relevant narratives. The narratives were obtained from the transcripts. Finally, the findings were checked and verified against existing literature. The results can be summarised as follows: * According to the findings, risk factors that contribute to the preschool child as an individual being vulnerable to sexual abuse is leaving the child alone at home without adequate supervision or the inability of parents or caregivers to provide adequately for the child’s basic needs. * Inadequate parenting was identified as a contributing risk factor on micro level. * Apathy among neighbours due to the absence of ubuntu was a contributing risk factor on meso level. * Inadequate programmes by social service organisations to preschool children were contributing risk factors on the eco systemic level. * Finally, poverty and inadequate infrastructure were contributing risk factors within the community as macro system.
- Humanities